Library

Welcome to the Eastern Ontario Birding Library. Over the next year, I will be cataloging all of the reading material below and availing to clients a library where any of the articles and/or books of interest can be rented out for study. Alternatively, I am now able to provide scans of articles, so please send me email if you’re looking to obtain a copy of a journal article found in the list below. I am continually updating the list below, so be sure to check back periodically!

Historical Posts (Eastern Ontario Birding)

Waterfowl

Cackling Geese in the East: http://eontbird.ca/?p=983

“Richardson’s” Cackling Geese in Eastern Ontario: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2138

Cackling Goose with a white neck collar: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2061

“Richardson’s” Cackling Geese in flight: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3964

Goldeneyes: Cryptic Barrows and “Yellow-billed” Common: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1467

St. Lawrence River: Eurasian Wigeons: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3736

Waterbird migration in the Nation’s Capital: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3556

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Birds of Prey

“Northern” Red-tailed Hawks: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1021

“Northern” Red-tailed Hawk ID note: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1566

“Northern” vs. “Eastern” Red-tailed Hawk pitfall: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1715

Red-tailed x Red-shouldered Hawk in Gananoque: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3994

Raptors at a Distance: shape trumps plumage: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1193

“Brown” Eagle ID Note: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1888

Golden Eagle at a Distance: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1803

Cooper’s Hawk ID tip: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2057

“Tiny” Cooper’s Hawks: http://eontbird.ca/?p=4047

Cooper’s vs. Sharp-shinned Hawk ID tip: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3958

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Shorebirds

Baird’s Sandpiper ID notes: http://eontbird.ca/?p=584

Black-bellied Plover ID notes: http://eontbird.ca/?p=628

Separating the Yellowlegs: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2997

“Golden” Black-bellied Plovers in Autumn: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3242

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Gulls & Terns

Gulls at the Ottawa Valley Waste Recovery Centre: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1298

Arctic Terns in Ottawa: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2647

Ottawa: “White-winged” gulls: http://eontbird.ca/?p=4260

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Owls

Great Horned Owls in Winter: http://eontbird.ca/?p=4320

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Flycatchers

Least & Yellow-bellied Flycatcher ID in Autumn: http://eontbird.ca/?p=878

Least Flycatcher: Autumn ID pitfall: http://eontbird.ca/?p=846

Yellow-bellied Flycatcher spring migration: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2603

Differential Migration of Least Flycatchers in Fall: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2864

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Shrikes

Sexing Northern Shrikes in the Field? http://eontbird.ca/?p=1735

Northern vs. Loggerhead Shrike ID: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2098

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Vireos

Philadelphia vs. Warbling Vireo ID: http://eontbird.ca/?p=652

Philadelphia Vireos in Spring: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2391

Yellow-throated Vireo in Song: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2463

A note on Blue-headed Vireos: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3328

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Swallows

Bank vs. Tree Swallow ID note: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2504

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Kinglets

Golden-crowned Kinglet ID note: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2324

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Thrushes

“Black-backed” American Robins: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2280

Bicknell’s Thrush ID notes: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2570

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Buntings & Longspurs

Some notes on Snow Buntings: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3776

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Warblers

Bay-breasted vs. Blackpoll Warbler ID: http://eontbird.ca/?p=873

Cerulean Warbler ID — females: http://eontbird.ca/?p=487

Pine Warbler ID — females: http://eontbird.ca/?p=489

Palm Warbler Subspecies ID Note: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2422

Connecticut Warbler notes: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2611

Chestnut-sided Warblers in Song: more than meets the ear: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2673

Mourning Warbler — first fall example with ID comments: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3081

Warblers are coming! (showcasing some of eBird’s explore data functions) http://eontbird.ca/?p=581

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Sparrows

White-crowned Sparrows in the East: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1091

Fox Sparrow alarm call: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2343

Field Sparrow silhouette: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2482

Swamp vs. Song Sparrow juvenile ID: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2977

Dark-eyed Junco note: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3779

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Tanagers

Interesting Facts about Scarlet Tanagers: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2376

Scarlet Tanager Alarm (?) Call: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3159

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Orioles

Bullock’s vs. Baltimore Oriole ID notes: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1363

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Finches

Greater vs. Southern Common Redpoll: bill shape: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1795

Purple Finch “vireo song”: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2335

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Field Birding

“Looking at Similar Songs”: http://eontbird.ca/?p=492

The Sunlit Edge: http://eontbird.ca/?p=927

Birding Tip: Stay on that Bird: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1667

Non-locatable Alarm Calls: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1980

Which Species Am I? OFO News Photo Quiz: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1914

Winter Birding Tip: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1806

The Green Morass: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2240

Bush-birding Tip: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2364

Bird Duets: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2358

Nature’s Birdbath: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2629

Learning Bird Songs & Calls: Dendroica, NatureInstruct: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2893

Developing Confidence in the Field: a note from experience: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2969

Using cautionary prefixes when describing the appearance of birds: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2992

Hawking at Dusk: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3208

Babbling in the Bush: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3042

Alan Wormington (1954 – 2016): http://eontbird.ca/?p=3265

The Performer Self: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3903

Brain training for birder’s: ID’s from the hip: http://eontbird.ca/?p=4254

MisID’s: http://eontbird.ca/?p=4272

Birding by Night: Averted Vision: http://eontbird.ca/?p=4328

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Birding trips

Birding Amherst Island in February: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1956

St. Isidore: 10 Bald Eagles in a single field: http://eontbird.ca/?p=1720

Birding Shirleys Bay Waterfront Trail in April: http://eontbird.ca/?p=2353

Birding Shirleys Bay Waterfront Trail in Late August: http://eontbird.ca/?p=787

20 Warbler Species Day in Ottawa: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3195

NCC Shirleys Bay Waterfront Trail: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3234

Goulbourn Sparrow Field: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3400

Prince Ed. County & Wolfe Island: http://eontbird.ca/?p=3838

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_________________________ Reading Material______________________________

Ducks, Geese, and Swans (Anatidae)

Abraham, K.F. 2005. The Cackling Goose: not new to Ontario. OFO News 23: 2-6. http://www.ofo.ca/site/page/view/articles.cacklinggoose.

Cox, C. and J. Barry. 2005. The identification, molts, and aging of American and Eurasian Wigeons in female-type plumages. Birding 37(2): 156-164. https://www.aba.org/birding/v37n2p156.pdf

Jackson, G. D. 1991. Field identification of teal in North America: Part I. Birding 23: 124-133.

Jackson, G.D. 1992. Field identification of teal in North America: female-like plumages – part II. Birding 24: 214-223.

Jordan, M. 1988. Distinguishing Tundra and Trumpeter Swans. Birding 20: 223-226.

Leafloor, J.O. and D.H. Rusch. 1997. Clinal size variation in Canada Geese affects morphometric discrimination techniques. Journal of Wildlife Management 61: 183-190.

Leafloor, J.O., J.A. Moore, and K.T. Scribner. 2013. A hybrid zone between Canada Geese (Branta Canadensis) and Cackling Geese (B. hutchinsii). The Auk 130(3): 1-14, 2013.

Martin, P.R. and B.M. Di Labio. 1994. Identification of Common X Barrow’s Goldeneye hybrids in the field. Birding 24: 104-105.

Merendino, M.T and Ankney, C.D. 1994. Habitat use by Mallards and American Black Ducks breeding in central Ontario. Condor 96: 411-421. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/condor/v096n02/p0411-p0421.pdf

Mlodinow, S.G., P.F. Springer, B. Deuel, L.S. Semo, T. Leukering, T.D. Schonewald, W. Tweit, and J.H. Barry. 2008. Distribution and identification of Cackling Goose (Branta hutchinsii) subspecies. North American Birds 62: 344 – 360. http://www.utahbirds.org/RecCom/IDhelp/Cackling_Goose-NAB.pdf

Moser, T.J. and R.E. Rolley. 1990. Discrimination of Giant and Interior Canada Geese of the Mississippi Flyway. Wildlife Society Bulletin 18: 381-388.

Mowbray, T.B., C.R. Ely, J.S. Sedinger, and R.E. Trost. 2002. Canada Goose (Branta canadensis). In The Birds of North America, no. 681 (A. Poole and F. Gill, Eds.) Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, and American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, D.C.

Pattern, M.A. and M.T. Heindel. 1994. Identifying Trumpeter and Tundra Swans in the field. Birding 26: 306-319.

Pearce, J.M. and K.S. Bollinger. 2003. Morphological traits of Pacific Flyway Canada Geese as an aid to subspecies identification and management. Journal of Field Ornithology 74: 357-369.

Petrie, S. and M.L. Schummer. 2002. Waterfowl responses to zebra mussels on the lower Great Lakes. Birding 34: 346-351.

Toochin, M. 1998. Possible anywhere: Tufted Duck. Birding 30: 370-383.

Trauger, D.L. 1974. Eye color of female Lesser Scaup in relation to age. Auk 91: 243-254. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v091n02/p0243-p0254.pdf.

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Wading Birds (Ardeidae, Threskiornithidae)

Dickerman, R.W. and K.C. Parkes. 1968. Notes on the plumages and generic status of the Little Blue Heron. Auk 437-440. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v085n03/p0437-p0440.pdf.

Pratt, H. Douglas. 1976. Field identification of White-faced and Glossy Ibises. Birding 8: 1-5.

Davis, W.E. 1999. Identification review: Black-crowned and Yellow-crowned Night-Herons. Birding 31: 410-415.

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Hawks and Vultures (Accipitridae, Cathartidae, Pandionidae)

Carrolan, T. 2010. Redtails R Us. Retrieved from http://www.hawksaloft.com/RedtailsRus.html.

Dickerman, R. 1989. Identification of Red-tailed Hawks wintering in Kansas, Kansas Ornithological Society. http://www.ksbirds.org/kos/bulletin/Vol40No4.pdf.

Dunne, P., D. Sibley, and C. Sutton. 1988. Hawks in Flight. Houghton Mifflin (Boston).

Iron, J. 2012. Dark morph Red-tailed Hawk: calurus or abieticola? TOC Newsletter,  Toronto Ornithological Club. http://www.jeaniron.ca/2012/darkredtailsTOCNews.pdf.

Liguori, J. and B. Sullivan. 2010. Comparison of Harlan’s with Western and Eastern Red-tailed Hawks. Birding 42(2) :30-37. http://www.aba.org/birding/v42n2p30.pdf.

Liguori, J. and B. Sullivan. 2014. Northern Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis abieticola) revisited. North American Birds V 67: no. 3 374-383. http://nab.aba.org/i/292179/9.

Liguori, J. 2000. Identification Review: Sharp-shinned and Cooper’s Hawks. Birding 32(5): 428-433.

Liguori, J. 2001. Pitfalls of Classifying Light Morph Red-tailed Hawks to Subspecies. Birding 33(5): 436-446.

Liguori, J. 2004. Dark Red-tailed Hawks. Birding 36(3): 501-506. http://www.aba.org/birding/v36n5p500.pdf.

Liguori, J. 2004. How to Age Golden Eagles. Birding 36(3): 278-283. http://www.aba.org/birding/v36n3p278.pdf.

Liguori, J. 2005. Hawks from Every Angle. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Liguori, J. 2011. Hawks at a Distance. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Pittaway, R. 1993. Subspecies and Morphs of the Red-tailed Hawk in Ontario Birds 11(1): 23-29. Ontario Field Ornithologists. http://www.jeaniron.ca/2010/redtailsRF.pdf.

Pittaway, R. 1998. Northern Redtails. OFO News 16(1):4. http://www.jeaniron.ca/2014/northernredtails.htm.

Pittaway, R. 1999. Fall Hawkwatching Guide. OFO News 17(3):1–8. http://www.ofo.ca/site/page/view/articles.hawkwatching.

Preston, C.R. and R.D. Beane. 2009. Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online:  http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/052, doi:10.2173/bna.52 (BNA Online requires a subscription for full article access).

Ruddy, J. and J. Liguori. 2014. Northern Red-tailed Hawks: A site dedicated to the identification and natural history of abieticola Red-tailed Hawks. Retrieved from https://northernredtails.wordpress.com/.

Ruddy, J. 2014. Identifying Northern Red-tailed Hawks. eBird Canada. http://ebird.org/content/canada/news/identifying-northern-red-tailed-hawks/.

Sullivan, B. and J. Liguori. 2009. Active flight feather molt in migrating North American raptors. Birding 41(4): 34–45.

Todd, W.E.C. 1950. A Northern Race of Red-tailed Hawks. Annals of the Carnegie Museum (Pittsburgh) 31: 289-296.

Wheeler, B. K. 2004. Aging and sexing Mississippi Kites. Birding 36: 508-519.

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Shorebirds (Charadriidae, Scolopacidae, Haematopididae, Recurvirostridae)

Alstrom, P. 1987. The identification of Baird’s and White-rumped Sandpipers in juvenile plumage. Birding 19(2): 10-13.

Cox, C. 2008. Identification of North American peeps: a different approach to an old problem. Birding 40(4): 32-40.

Mlodinow, S. and M. Axelson. 2006. Gray-bellied Brant: identification and vagrancy. Birding 38(3): 48-55.

Mlodinow, S. 2001. Possible anywhere: Sharp-tailed Sandpiper. Birding 33: 330-341.

O’Brien, M. 2006. Willet: eastern vs. western subspecies. Birding 38(3): 40-47.

O’Brien, M., R. Crossley, and K. Karlson. 2006. The Shorebird Guide. Houghton Mifflin, Boston.

Pittaway, R. 1992. Point/counterpoint: Short-billed Dowitcher subspecies. Birding 24: 309-312.

Putnam, C. 2005. Fall molts of adult dowitchers. Birding 37: 380-391. http://www.aba.org/birding/v37n4p380.pdf.

Wilds, C. and M. Newlon. 1983. The field identification of dowitchers. Birding 15: 151-165.

Wilds, C. 1982. Separating the yellowlegs. Birding 14: 172-178.

Wilson, A. 2005. Red-necked Stint: status and identification. Birding 37: 628-637.

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Gulls, Terns, and Jaegers (Laridae)

Gosselin, M. and N. David. 1975. Field identification of Thayer’s Gull (Larus thayeri) in eastern North America. American Birds 29: 1059-1066. See: http://gull-research.org/thayers/thayerspdf.html.

Howell, S.N.G., and J. Dunn. 2007. A Reference Guide to the Gulls of the Americas. Peterson Reference Guide Series. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Ingolfsson, A. 1969. Sexual dimorphism of large gulls (Larus spp.). Auk 86: 732-737. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v086n04/p0732-p0737.pdf

Lehman, P. 1980. The identification of Thayer’s Gull in the field. Birding 12: 198-210.

Lethaby, N. and J. Bangma. 1998. Identifying Black-tailed Gull in North America. Birding 30: 470-483.

Post, P.W. and R.H. Lewis. 1995. Lesser Black-backed Gull in the Americas: occurrence and subspecific identity, part II – field identification. Birding 27: 370-381.

Sherony, D.F. and K.J. Brock. 1997. Jaeger migration on the Great Lakes. Birding 29: 372-385.

Wilds, C. 1993. The identification and aging of Forster’s and Common Terns. Birding 25: 94-108.

Zimmer, K.J. 1991. Plumage variation in “Kumlien’s” Iceland Gull. Birding 23: 254-270.

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Owls (Tytonidae, Strigidae)

Owen, D.F. 1963. Polymorphism in the Screech Owl, Otus asio, in eastern North America. Wilson Bulletin 75: 183-190. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v075n02/p0183-p0190.pdf.

Pittaway, R. (2014, January) Recognizable Forms: Morphs of the Eastern Screech-Owl. Retrieved from http://www.jeaniron.ca/Owls/2014/morphscreech.htm.

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Hummingbirds (Trochilidae)

Heidcamp, A. 1997. Selaphorus hummingbirds: notes on identification. Birding 24: 18-29.

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Woodpeckers (Picidae)

Dunn, J. 1978. The races of the Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. Birding 10: 142-149.

Ellison, W.G. 1992. Different drummers: identifying the rhythms of northeastern woodpeckers. Birding 24: 350-355.

Mlodinow, S.G., J.H. Barry., and C. D. Cox. 2006. Variation in Red-naped and Yellow-bellied Sapsuckers. Birding 38(6): 42-51.

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Falcons (Falconidae)

Nicoletti, F. and D. Benson. 2000. Identification review: Gyrfalcon. Birding 32: 22-29.

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Tyrant Flycatchers (Tyrannidae)

Brunton, D.F., and W.J. Crins. 1975. Status and habitat preference of the Yellow-bellied Flycatcher in Algonquin Park, Ontario. Ontario Field Biology 29: 25-28.

Hussell, D.J.T., T. Davis and R.D. Montgomerie. 1967. Differential migration of adult and immature Least Flycatchers. Birding-Banding 38:61-66.

Hussel, D.J.T. 1981. Migrations of the Least Flycatcher in southern Ontario. Journal of Field Ornithology 52: 97-111. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v052n02/p0097-p0111.pdf

Hussell, D.J.T. 1982a. The timing of fall migration in Yellow-bellied Flycatchers. Journal of Field Ornithology 53: 1-6.

Hussell, D.J.T. 1982. Migrations of the Yellow-bellied Flycatchers in southern Ontario. Journal of Field Ornithology 53: 223-234. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v053n03/p0223-p0234.pdf

Hussell, D.J.T. 1991a. Spring migrations of Alder and Willow Flycatchers in southern Ontario. Journal of Field Ornithology 62: 69-77. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v062n01/p0069-p0077.pdf

Hussell, D.J.T. 1991b. Fall migrations of Alder and Willow Flycatchers in southern Ontario. Journal of Field Ornithology 62: 260-270. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v062n02/p0260-p0270.pdf

Lee, C., A. Birch, and T. L. Eubanks. 2008. Field identification of Western and Eastern Wood-Pewees. Birding 40: 34-41. http://www.aba.org/birding/v40n5p34.pdf

Rowland, F. 2009. Identifying Empidonax flycatchers: the ratio approach. Birding 41: 30-39. http://www.aba.org/birding/v41n2p30.pdf

Whitney, B. and K. Kaufman. 1985a. The Empidonax Challenge: looking at Empidonax. Part I: Introduction. Birding 17: 277-287.

Whitney, B. and K. Kaufman. 1985b. The Empidonax Challenge: looking at Empidonax. Part II: Least, Hammond’s, and Dusky flycatchers. Birding 17: 277-287.

Whitney, B. and K. Kaufman. 1986a. The Empidonax Challenge: looking at Empidonax. Part III: “Traill’s” Flycatcher: the Alder/Willow problem. Birding 28: 153-159.

Whitney, B. and K. Kaufman. 1986b. The Empidonax Challenge: looking at Empidonax. Part IV: Acadian, Yellow-bellied, and Western flycatchers. Birding 18: 315-327.

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Vireos (Vireonidae)

Bent, A. C. 1950. Life histories of North American wagtails, shrikes, vireos, and their allies. U.S. National Museum Bulletin 197.

James, R.D. 1978. Pairing and nest site selection in Solitary and Yellow-throated Vireos, with a description of a ritualized nest building display. Canadian Journal of Zoology 56: 1163-1169.

James, R.D. 1981. Factors affecting variation in the primary song of North American Solitary Vireos (Aves: Vireonidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 59: 2001-2009.

James, R.D. 1984. Structure, frequency of usage, and apparent learning in the primary song of the Yellow-throated Vireo, with comparative notes on Solitary Vireos (Aves: Vireonidae). Canadian Journal of Zoology 62: 468-472.

James, R.D. 1996. Yellow-throated and Solitary Vireos in Ontario: introduction and behavior of unmated males. Ontario Birds 14(2): 45-49.

Rice, J. 1978a. Ecological relationships of two interspecifically territorial vireos. Ecology 59: 526-538.

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Swallows (Hirundinidae)

Lethaby, N. 1996. Identification of Tree, Northern Rough-winged and Bank Swallows. Birding 27: 111-117.

Wilds, C. 1985. Unraveling the mysteries of the brown swallows. Birding 17: 209-215.

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Thrushes (Turdidae)

Aldrich, J.W. Geographic variation of the Veery. Auk 56: 338-340. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v056n03/p0338-p0340.pdf

Aldrich, J.W. and F.C. James. 1991. Ecogeographic variation in the American Robin (Turdus migratorius). Auk 108: 230–249. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v108n02/p0230-p0249.pdf.

Dunn, J. 1981. The identification of female bluebirds. Birding 12(1): 4-10.

Evans, W.R. 1994. Nocturnal flight call of Bicknell’s Thrush. Wilson Bulletin 106: 55-61

Lane, D. and A. Jaramillo. 2000a. Field identification of Hylocichla/Catharus Thrushes. Part I: Molt and aging of spotted thrushes and field ID of Wood Thrush and Hermit Thrush. Birding 32: 121-135.

Lane, D. and A. Jaramillo. 2000b. Field identification of Hylocichla/Catharus Thrushes. Part II: Veery and Swainson’s Thrush. Birding 32: 242-254.

Lane, D. and A. Jaramillo. 2000c. Field identification of Hylocichla/Catharus Thrushes. Part III: Gray-cheeked and Bicknell’s Thrushes. Birding 32: 318-331.

Mactavish, B. (2014, April 19) The Mythical Black-backed Newfoundland American Robin. Retrieved from http://brucemactavish1.blogspot.ca/2014/04/the-mythical-black-backed-newfoundland.html.

Mclaren, I.A. 1995. Field identification and taxonomy of Bicknell’s Thrush. Birding 27: 358-366.

Ouellet, H. 1993. Bicknell’s Thrush: Taxonomic status and distribution. Wilson Bulletin  105: 545-754. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v105n04/p0545-p0572.pdf.

Rimmer, C. 1996. A closer look: Bicknell’s Thrush. Birding 28: 118-123.

Wallace, G.J. 1939. Bicknell’s Thrush, its taxonomy, distribution, and life history. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 41: 211-402.

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Gnatcatchers (Sylviidae)

Dunn, J. and K. Garrett. 1987. The identification of North American gnatcatchers. Birding 19(1): 17-29.

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Longspurs (Calcariidae)

Sullivan, B.L. and E.L. Kershner. 2003. Learning to identify difficult longspurs. Birding 35: 508-514.

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Wood Warblers (Parulidae)

Binford, L.C. 1971. Identification of Northern and Louisiana Waterthrushes. California Birds 2: 1-10. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wb/v02n01/p0001-p0010.pdf.

Burke, D.M. and E. Nol. 1998. Influence of food abundance, nest-site habitat, and forest fragmentation on breeding Ovenbirds. Auk 115: 96-104. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v115n01/p0096-p0104.pdf

Collins, S.L. 1983. Geographic variation in habitat structure of the Black-throated Green Warbler (Dendroica virens). Auk 100: 382-389. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v100n02/p0382-p0389.pdf.

Craig, J. 1985. Comparative habitat use by Louisiana and Northern Waterthrushes. Wilson Bulletin 97: 347-355. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v097n03/p0347-p0355.pdf.

Curson, J. 1992. Identification of Connecticut, Mourning and MacGillivray’s Warblers in female and immature plumages.  Birders Journal 1: 275-278.

Curson, J. 1993. Identification of Northern and Louisiana waterthrushes.  Birder’s Journal 2: 126-130.

Dunn, J. and K. Garrett. 1997. A Field Guide to the Warblers of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Foster, M.S. 1967. Pterylography and age determination in Orange-crowned Warbler. Condor 69: 1-12. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/condor/v069n01/p0001-p0012.pdf.

Francis, C.M. and F. Cooke. 1986. Differential timing of spring migration in wood warblers (Parulidae). The Auk 103(3): 548-556. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v103n03/p0548-p0556.pdf

Gartshore, M.E. 1988. A summary of the breeding status of Hooded Warbler in Ontario. Ontario Birds 6: 85-89.

Getty, S. R. 1993. Call-notes of North American Wood Warblers. Birding 25: 159-168.

Harris, A. 1990. Palm Warblers use upland cutovers as nesting habitat in northwestern Ontario. Ontario Birds 8: 84-87.

Hough, J. 1996. Pine and “baypoll” warblers: plumage variation and identification problems. Birding 284-291.

Hubbard, J.P. 1970. Geographic variation in the Dendroica coronata complex. Wilson Bulletin 82: 355-369.  https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v082n04/p0355-p0369.pdf

Hutto, R.L. 1981. Seasonal variation in the foraging behavior of some migratory wood warblers. Auk 98: 765-777. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v098n04/p0765-p0777.pdf.

Johnston, D.W. 1976. Races of Palm Warbler killed at a Florida TV tower. Florida Field Naturalists 4: 22-24. http://www.fosbirds.org/sites/default/files/FFNs/FFNv04n2p22-24Johnston.pdf.

Lehman, P. 1987. Immature Blackburnian and Cerulean Warblers: a cautionary note. Birding 19: 22-23.

Ouellet, H. 1967. The distribution of Cerulean Warbler in the province of Quebec. Auk 8: 272-274. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v084n02/p0272-p0274.pdf

Raveling, D.G. and  D.W. Warner. 1965. Plumages, molt and morphometry of Tennessee Warblers. Bird banding 36: 169-179. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v036n03/p0169-p0179.pdf

Regelski, D.J. and R.R. Moldenhauer. 1996. Discrimination between regional song forms in the Northern Parula. Wilson Bulletin 108: 335-341. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v108n02/p0335-p0341.pdf.

Shapiro, L. 2005. Hybrids of Golden-winged and Blue-winged Warblers. Birding 37: 278-287.

Whitney, B. 1983. Bay-breasted, Blackpoll, and Pine Warblers in fall plumage. Birding 15: 219-222.

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 Sparrows (Emberizidae)

Aldrich, J.W. 1940. Geographic variation in eastern North America Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). Ohio Journal of Science 40: 1-8. http://kb.osu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/1811/3058/V40N01_001.pdf?sequence=1.

Aldrich, J.W. 1984. Ecogeographical variation in size and proportions of Song Sparrows (Melospiza melodia). Ornithological Monographs No. 35, American Ornithologists’ Union, Washington, DC. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/om/om035.pdf.

Atkinson, C.T. and C.J. Ralph. 1980. Acquisition of plumage polymorphism in White-throated Sparrows. Auk 97: 245-252. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v097n02/p0245-p0252.pdf

Banks, R.C. 1964. Geographic variation in the White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys. University of California Publications in Zoology 70:1-123.

Beadle, D. and J. Rising. 2002. Sparrows of the United States and Canada: The Photographic Guide. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.

Dunn, J. L., K. L. Garrett, and J. K. Alderfer. 1995. White-crowned Sparrow subspecies: Identification and distribution. Birding 27: 183-200.

Dunn, J. 2002. The identification of Pink-sided Juncos. Birding 34: 432-443.

Garrett, K.L., J.L. Dunn, and R. Righter. 2000. Call notes and winter distribution in the Fox Sparrow complex. Birding 32: 412-417.

Lowler, J.K. 1961. Polymorphism in the White-throated Sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis (Gmelin). Canadian Journal of Zoology 39: 281-292.

Mclaren, I.A. and A. G. Horn. 2006. The Ipswich Sparrow: past, present, and future. Birding 38: 52-59.

Murray, B.G. Jr. 1969. A comparative study of Le Conte’s and Sharp-tailed Sparrows. Auk 86: 199-231. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v086n02/p0199-p0231.pdf.

Pyle, P. and P. Henderson. 1990. On separating female and immature Oporornis warblers in the fall. Birding 22: 222-229.

Pyle, P. and D. Sibley. 1992. Juvenal-plumaged Le Conte’s Sparrows on migration. Birding 24: 70-76.

Pyle, P. and S. N. G. Howell. 1996. Spizella sparrows: intraspecific variation and identification. Birding 28: 374-388.

Rimmer, C.C. 1986. Identification of juvenile Lincoln’s and Swamp Sparrows. Journal of Field Ornithology 57: 114-125. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/jfo/v057n02/p0114-p0125.pdf.

Rising, J.D. 2001. Geographic variation in size and shape of Savannah Sparrows (Passerculus sandwichensis). Studies in Avian Biology 23. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/sab/sab_023.pdf

Rising, J. 2010. The many Savannah Sparrows. Birding 42: 44-55.

Sibley, D. 1996. Field identification of the Sharp-tailed Sparrow complex. Birding 28: 197-208.

Swarth, H.W. 1920. Revision of the avian genus Passerella with special reference to the distribution and migration of the races in California. University of California Publications in Zoology 21: 75-224. https://ia800204.us.archive.org/12/items/cu31924022548907/cu31924022548907.pdf

Todd, W.E.C. 1953. Further taxonomic notes on the White-crowned Sparrow. Auk 70: 370-372.  https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v070n03/p0370-p0372.pdf

Woods, P. 1999. A Familiar Mystery: Polymorphism and the White-throated Sparrow. Birding 31: 263-267.

Zink, R.M. and A. E. Kessen. 1999. Species limits in the Fox Sparrow. Birding 31: 508-517.

Zink, R.M., and 6 co-authors. 2005. Mitochondrial DNA variation, species limits, and rapid evolution of plumage coloration and size in the Savannah Sparrow. Condor 107:21-28. http://myweb.dal.ca/aghorn/pubs/ZinkEtAl.pdf

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Blackbirds (Icteridae)

Lee, C. and A. Birch. 1998. Field identification of female and immature Bullock’s and Baltimore Orioles. Birding 30: 282-295.

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Finches (Fringillidae)

Benkman, C.W. 1989. Breeding opportunities, foraging rates, and parental care in White-winged Crossbills. Auk 106: 483-485.

Benkman, C.W. 1990. Foraging rates and timing of crossbill reproduction. Auk 107: 376-386.

Czaplak, D. 1995. Identifying Common and Hoary redpolls in winter. Birding 27: 446-457.

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North America

Benton, T.G., D.M. Bryant, L. Cole, and H.Q.P. Crick. 2002. Linking agricultural practice to insect and bird populations: a historical study over three decades. Journal of Applied Ecology 39: 673-687.

Bolgiano, N.C. 2004. Cause and effect: changes in boreal bird irruptions in Eastern North America relative to the 1970s Spruce Budworm infestation. American Birds 58: 26-33. http://greenwich.audubon.org/sites/default/files/documents/104_026-33BUDWORMfeature.pdf.

Bruderer, B. and F. Liechti. 1998. Flight behavior of nocturnally migrating birds in coastal areas — crossing or coasting. Journal of Avian Biology 29: 499507.

Buffington, J.M., J.C. Kilgo, R.A. Sargent, K.V. Miller, and B.R. Chapman. 1997. Comparison of breeding bird communities in bottomland hardwood forests of different successional stages. Wilson Bulletin 109: 314-319. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v109n02/p0314-p0319.pdf

Crossley, R. 2011. The Crossley ID Guide: Eastern Birds. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Dunn, J.L. and J. Alderfer. 2011. National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America. 6th ed. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society.

Elliot, L. 1999. Music of the Birds: A Celebration of Birdsong. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt., Boston, MA.

Howell, S.N.G. 2010. Molt in North American Birds. Peterson Reference Guide Series. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Jaramillo, A. 2006. Tales from the cryptic species. Birding 38(3): 30-38.

Karlson, K.T. and D.A. Rosselet. Birding by impression: a different approach to field identification. Birding 39: 56-63.

Kaufman, K. 1984. Terminology and bird topography. Birding 16: 191-196.

Kaufman, K. 1990. Advanced Birding. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Peterson, R.T. 2008. Peterson Field Guide to Birds of North America. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Sibley, D.A. 1994. A guide to finding and identifying hybrid birds. Birding 26: 163-177.

Sibley, D.A. 2014. The Sibley Guide to Birds. 2nd ed. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Wilds, C. 1989. The terminology of plumage and molt. Birding 21: 148-153.

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 Canada

Godfrey, W.E. 1966. The Birds of Canada. Bulletin 203. National Museum of Canada. Ottawa.

Godfrey, W.E. 1986. The Birds of Canada. Revised Edition. National Museum of Canada. Ottawa.

Manning, T.H. 1952. Birds of the west James Bay and southern Hudson Bay coasts. Bulletin 125. National Museum of CanadaOttawa.

Todd, W.E.C. 1963. Birds of the Labrador Peninsula and Adjacent Areas. Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and the University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario.

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 Ontario

Austen, M.J.W., M.D. Cadman, and R.D. James. 1994. Ontario birds at risk: status and conservation needs. Federation of Ontario Naturalists and Long Point Bird Observatory, Don Mills.

Cadman, M.D., D.A. Sutherland, G. G. Beck, D. Lepage, and A.R.Couturier (eds). Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Ontario, 2001-2005. Bird Studies Canada, Environment Canada, Ontario Field Ornithologists, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, and Ontario Nature, Toronto, xxii + 706 pp.

James, R.D. 1991. Annotated Checklist of the Birds of Ontario. Second Edition. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto.

Peck, G.K., and R.D. James. 1987. Breeding Birds of Ontario: Nidiology and Distribution. Volume 2: Passerines. Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publications. Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. https://archive.org/details/breedingbirdsofo02peck

Weir, R. D. 1989. The birds of the Kingston region. Kingston Field Naturalists, Kingston, Ontario.

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Birdsong

Kroodsma, D.E. 1979. Vocal duelling among male Marsh Wrens: evidence for ritualized expression of  dominance/subordinance. Auk 96: 506-515.  https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v096n03/p0506-p0515.pdf

Kroodsma, D.E. 1984. Songs of the Alder Flycatcher (Empidonax alnorum) and Willow Flycatcher (Empidonax trailli) are innate. Auk 101: 13-24. https://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v101n01/p0013-p0024.pdf

Kroodsma, D.E. 2005. The Singing Life of Birds. The Art and Science of Listening to Birdsong. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Kroodsma, D.E. 2009. Birdsong by the Seasons.  Boston, Masschusetts, Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, MA.

Marler, P., and M. Tamura. 1962. Song dialects in three populations of the White-crowned Sparrow. Condor 64: 368-377.

Marler, P., and H. Slabbekoorn. 2004. Nature’s Music: The Science of Birdsong. London: Elsevier Academic Press.

Mcnair, D.B. and R.A. Forster. 1983. Heterospecific vocal mimicry by six oscines. Canadian Field Naturalist 97: 321-322.

Thorpe, W.H., and P.M. Pilcher. 1958. The nature and characteristics of subsong. British Birds 51: 509-514.  https://www.britishbirds.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/article_files/V51/V51_N12/V51_N12_P509_512_A080.pdf

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My Publications

Ruddy, J. and J. Liguori. 2014. Northern Red-tailed Hawks: A site dedicated to the identification and natural history of abieticola Red-tailed Hawks. Retrieved from https://northernredtails.wordpress.com/.

Ruddy, J. 2014. Identifying Northern Red-tailed Hawks. eBird Canada. http://ebird.org/content/canada/news/identifying-northern-red-tailed-hawks/.

Ruddy, J. 2016. Photo Quiz. OFO News 34(1): 15-16.

Ruddy, J. 2016. Photo Quiz. OFO News 34(2): 15-16.

Ruddy, J. 2016. Photo Quiz. OFO News 34(3): 15-16.

Ruddy, J. 2017. Photo Quiz. OFO News 35(1): 15-16.

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Facebook Sites of Interest

Advanced Bird ID: https://www.facebook.com/groups/357272384368972/

Field Naturalists of Ontario: https://www.facebook.com/groups/1725944067631993/

Hawk ID: https://www.facebook.com/groups/1387877288186021/

Ontario Birds: https://www.facebook.com/group/377736792291721/

OFO – Ontario Field Ornithologists: https://www.facebook.com/OntarioFieldOrnithologists?fref=ts

Ottawa-Gatineau Hawkwatchers: https://www.facebook.com/groups/1480918358796602/

Ottawa Field-Naturalists’ Club: https://www.facebook.com/groups/379992938552/

North American Gulls: https://www.facebook.com/groups/nagulls/

RIFF RAFF Hawkwatch Group: https://www.facebook.com/groups/243276639112/

Simcoe County Banding Group: https://www.facebook.com/simcoecountybanding?fref=ts

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Blogs & Websites of Interest

Brandon Holden’s blog: http://www.blog.peregrineprints.com/

Bruce Di Labio’s blog: http://brucedilabio.blogspot.ca/

Gillian Mastromatteo’s blog: https://meadowhawk.wordpress.com/the-pathless-woods/

Jacques Bouvier’s blog: http://jacquesbouvier.blogspot.ca/

Jean Iron & Ron Pittaway’s site: http://jeaniron.ca

Jerry Liguori’s Blog: http://jerryliguori.blogspot.ca/

Josh Vandermeulen’s blog: http://joshvandermeulen.blogspot.ca/

Mike Burrell’s blog: http://mikeburrell.blogspot.ca/

Ontario Field Ornithologists: http://www.ofo.ca/

Ontario Bird Checklist: http://www.ofo.ca/site/page/view/checklist.checklist

OntBirds archive: http://ontbirds.ca/pipermail/birdalert_ontbirds.ca/

Surfbirds: http://surfbirds.com

The Afternoon Birder: http://theafternoonbirder.com/

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Birding Ethics

Ontario Field Ornithologists: http://www.ofo.ca/site/page/view/aboutus.ethics

Ottawa Field-Naturalists’ Club: http://www.ofnc.ca/birding/Code-of-Conduct.pdf